Chemical Analysis and Investigation of Biological Effects of Salvia officinalis Essential Oils at Three Phenological Stages

Hamza M. Assaggaf, Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Bodour S. Rajab, Ammar A. Attar, Reema A. Alyamani, Munerah Hamed, Nasreddine El Omari, Naoual El Menyiy, Zakaria Hazzoumi, Taoufiq Benali, Samiah Hamad Al-Mijalli, Gokhan Zengin, Yusra AlDhaheri, Ali H. Eid, Abdelhakim Bouyahya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Salvia officinalis is a medicinal plant used to treat some diseases, including microbial infections and diabetes. Different studies showed the biological and pharmacological properties of this species. The aim of this study was the determination of the chemical compounds of S. officinalis essential oils and the investigation of their antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The chemical compounds of S. officinalis were determined by GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, and FRAP assays. The in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated by the inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase activities, and the anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using the 5-lipoxygenase assay. Moreover, antibacterial activity was assessed against six bacterial strains using agar well diffusion assay and microdilution method. The main compounds in essential oils of S. officinalis at three phenological stages were naphthalenone, camphor, 1.8-cineole, and α-thujone. The full flowering stage essential oil showed the best antioxidant activity with different IC50 values according to the used tests. This oil also exhibited important inhibitory effects at the full flowering stage against α-amylase (IC50 = 69.23 ± 0.1 μg/mL), α-glucosidase (IC50 = 22.24 ± 0.07 μg/mL), and lipase (IC50 = 37.3 ± 0.03 μg/mL). The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory effect was the best at the full flowering stage (IC50 = 9.24 ± 0.03 μg/mL). The results of the antibacterial evaluation revealed that, at three seasonal periods, S. officinalis essential oil demonstrated strong antibacterial activity. Although the full flowering stage had the best antibacterial activity, there were no significant differences between the three stages. Additionally, the essential oils showed bactericidal effects on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. The findings of this work showed remarkably that S. officinalis synthesizes essential oils according to different developmental stages. Moreover, it has exhibited interesting biological and pharmacological properties justifying its medicinal effects and suggesting it as a very important source of natural drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5157
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Salvia officinalis
  • anti-inflammatory effects
  • antidiabetic activity
  • essential oils
  • phenological stages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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