Chemistry of trisindolines: natural occurrence, synthesis and bioactivity

First Ambar Wati, Mardi Santoso, Ziad Moussa, Sri Fatmawati, Arif Fadlan, Zaher M.A. Judeh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds are privileged structures with many applications in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries since they possess wide bioactivities. Trisindolines are heterocyclic nitrogen compounds consisting of an isatin core bearing two indole moieties. Trisindolines have been synthesized by reacting isatins with indoles using various routes and the yield greatly depends on the catalyst used, reaction conditions, and the substituents on both the isatin and indole moieties. Amongst the synthetic routes, acid-catalyzed condensation reaction between isatins and indoles are the most useful due to high yield, wide scope and short reaction times. Trisindolines are biologically active compounds and show anticancer, antimicrobial, antitubercular, antifungal, anticonvulsant, spermicidal, and antioxidant activities, among others. Trisindolines have not previously been reviewed. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive account of trisindolines including their natural occurrence, routes of synthesis, and biological activities. It aims to inspire the discovery of lead trisindoline drug candidates for further development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25381-25421
Number of pages41
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number41
Publication statusPublished - Jul 11 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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