Chiari type i malformation associated with verbal fluency impairment

Esther Lázaro, Maitane García, Ane Ibarrola, Imanol Amayra, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Alicia Aurora Rodríguez, Paula Fernández, Paula María Luna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Chiari malformation (CM) Type I is a rare disorder that implies an anomaly in the craniocervical junction, where one or both cerebellar tonsils are displaced below the foramen magnum into the cervical spinal channel. Research carried out regarding cognitive symptoms such as verbal fluency is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal fluency is impaired in a CM clinical group compared to a group of healthy control individuals while controlling for depression and anxiety symptomatology. Method: For this purpose, 101 individuals were enrolled to take part in the study (51 CM, 50 healthy controls). The Controlled Oral Word Association Test (Benton, de Hamsher, & Sivan, 1983) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983) were administered. Results: Results showed significantly lower scores for the CM group in verbal fluency compared to the control group ( p < .005). After performing an analysis of covariance to eliminate depression and anxiety symptomatology tendencies, it was observed that verbal fluency could not be predicted by this variable ( p > .005). Conclusions: From the results of this study, it can be concluded that people suffering from CM exhibit less verbal fluency than healthy control individuals and that this difference is not caused by depression or anxiety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2458-2466
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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