Clinical, biochemical, and genetic heterogeneity in glutaric aciduria type ii patients

Amanat Ali, Fatmah Saeed Ali Almesmari, Nahid Al Dhahouri, Arwa Mohammad Saleh Ali, Mohammed Ahmed Ali Mohamed Ahmed Aldhanhani, Ranjit Vijayan, Amal Al Tenaiji, Aisha Al Shamsi, Jozef Hertecant, Fatma Al Jasmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The variants of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFA, ETFB) and ETF dehydrogenase (ETFDH) are the leading cause of glutaric aciduria type II (GA-II). In this study, we identified 13 patients harboring six variants of two genes associated with GA-II. Out of the six variants, four were missense, and two were frameshift mutations. A missense variant (ETFDH:p.Gln269His) was observed in a homozygous state in nine patients. Among nine patients, three had experienced metabolic crises with recurrent vomiting, abdominal pain, and nausea. In one patient with persistent metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and a high anion gap, the ETFDH:p.Gly472Arg, and ETFB:p.Pro94Thrfs*8 variants were identified in a homozygous, and heterozygous state, respectively. A missense variant ETFDH: p.Ser442Leu was detected in a homozygous state in one patient with metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia and liver dysfunction. The ETFDH:p.Arg41Leu, and ETFB:p.Ile346Phefs*19 variants were observed in a homozygous state in one patient each. Both these variants have not been reported so far. In silico approaches were used to evaluate the pathogenicity and structural changes linked with these six variants. Overall, the results indicate the importance of a newborn screening program and genetic investigations for patients with GA-II. Moreover, careful interpretation and correlation of variants of uncertain significance with clinical and biochemical findings are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of such variants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1334
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase
  • Glutaric aciduria type II
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Recurrent vomiting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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