Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality among COVID-19 hospitalized patients in UAE: Does ethnic origin have an impact

Salah AbuRuz, Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Sham ZainAlAbdin, Rami Beiram, Mohammed Al Hajjar

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12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The relationship between COVID-19 patient's clinical characteristics and disease manifestation remains incompletely understood. The impact of ethnicity on mortality of patients with COVID-19 infection is poorly addressed in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that many risk factors are related to symptoms severity and mortality risk, emphasizing the necessity of fulfilling this knowledge gap that may help reducing mortality from COVID-19 infections through tackling the risk factors. Aims To explore epidemiological and demographic characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from different ethnic origins living in the UAE, compare them to findings reported across the globe and determine the impact of these characteristics and ethnicity on mortality during hospitalization. Methods A single center, retrospective chart review study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was conducted in a large COVID-19 referral hospital in UAE. The following outcomes were assessed: Patients' clinical characteristics, disease symptoms and severity, and association of ethnicity and other risk factors on 30-day in hospital mortality. Results A total of 3296 patients were recruited in this study with an average age of 44.3±13.4 years old. Preliminary data analysis indicated that 78.3% (n = 2582) of cases were considered mild. Average duration of hospital stay was 6.0±7.3 days and 4.3% (n = 143) were admitted to ICU. The most frequently reported symptoms were cough (32.6%, n = 1075) and fever (22.2%, n = 731). The 30-day mortality rate during hospitalization was 2.7% (n = 90). Many risk factors were associated with mortality during hospitalization including: Age, respiratory rate (RR), creatinine, and C-reactive protein, oxygen saturation (SaO2), hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, anemia, COPD, Chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, Vitamin-D Deficiency, and ethnic origin (p <0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that higher mortality rates during hospitalization was associated with anemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, and Middle Eastern origin (p<0.05). Conclusion The results indicated that most COVID-19 cases were mild and morality rate was low compared to worldwide reported mortality. Mortality rate during hospitalization was higher in patients from Middle East origin with preexisting comorbidities especially anemia, COPD, and chronic kidney disease. Due to the relatively small number of mortality cases, other identified risk factors from univariate analysis such as age, respiratory rate, and Vitamin-D (VitD) deficiency should also be taken into consideration. It is crucial to stratify patients on admission based on these risk factors to help decide intensity and type of treatment which, possibly, will reduce the risk of death.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0264547
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume17
Issue number3 March
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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