Clinical measurement of lupus nephritis activity is inferior to biomarker-based activity assessment using the renal activity index for lupus nephritis in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

Najla Aljaberi, Scott E. Wenderfer, Arjun Mathur, Tingting Qiu, Steffy Jose, Angela Merritt, James Rose, Prasad Devarajan, Bin Huang, Hermine Brunner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives The renal activity index for lupus (RAIL) measures lupus nephritis (LN) activity considering urine levels of 6 biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, kidney injury molecule-1, adiponectin, haemopexin, ceruloplasmin). We aimed to compare the accuracy of the RAIL and the renal domain-score of the SLE disease activity index (rSLEDAI) in detecting LN activity. Methods Random urine samples of patients with childhood-onset SLE with and without LN were assayed and scores of the RAIL, and RAIL standardised for urine creatinine (RAIL-Cr) were calculated. Clinical LN activity was measured by the rSLEDAI, and histological activity of LN was categorised as inactive/low-moderate/high for National Institute of Health-activity index scores of <2/2-10/>10, respectively. Results 115 patients were included in the analysis (47 patients without and 68 with LN). RAIL, RAIL-Cr and rSLEDAI scores at the time (±3 months) of kidney biopsy were available for 32 patients. Median rSLEDAI, RAIL and RAIL-Cr values were 4, -0.04, 0.02 for inactive LN, 12, 0.7 and 0.9 for low-moderate LN activity and 12, 2 and 1.8 for high LN activity, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to capture high LN activity was the lowest for the rSLEDAI (AUC=0.62), followed by the RAIL-Cr (AUC=0.73) and RAIL (AUC=0.79). Notably, when testing urine samples collected during routine clinic visits remote (>3 months) from a kidney biopsy, 50% patients with rSLEDAI scores of 0 had RAIL scores reflecting low-moderate LN activity. Conclusion Monitoring of renal inflammation in children and adolescents with SLE can be improved by the measurement of urine biomarkers. The RAIL may constitute important auxiliary tool for the surveillance of LN in a clinical setting and assist with the decision to obtain a kidney biopsy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000631
JournalLupus Science and Medicine
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology

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