Co-Dynamics of COVID-19 and Viral Hepatitis B Using a Mathematical Model of Non-Integer Order: Impact of Vaccination

Andrew Omame, Ifeoma P. Onyenegecha, Aeshah A. Raezah, Fathalla A. Rihan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The modeling of biological processes has increasingly been based on fractional calculus. In this paper, a novel fractional-order model is used to investigate the epidemiological impact of vaccination measures on the co-dynamics of viral hepatitis B and COVID-19. To investigate the existence and stability of the new model, we use some fixed point theory results. The COVID-19 and viral hepatitis B thresholds are estimated using the model fitting. The vaccine parameters are plotted against transmission coefficients. The effect of non-integer derivatives on the solution paths for each epidemiological state and the trajectory diagram for infected classes are also examined numerically. An infection-free steady state and an infection-present equilibrium are achieved when (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.), respectively. Similarly, phase portraits confirm the behaviour of the infected components, showing that, regardless of the order of the fractional derivative, the trajectories of the disease classes always converge toward infection-free steady states over time, no matter what initial conditions are assumed for the diseases. The model has been verified using real observations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number544
JournalFractal and Fractional
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • data fitting
  • existence and uniqueness of solution
  • fractional calculus
  • mathematical model
  • stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analysis
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability


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