Combustion of Date Stone and Jojoba Solid Waste in a Hybrid Rocket-like Combustion Chamber

Saleh B. Alsaidi, Jeongmoo Huh, Mohamed Y.E. Selim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The performance of two solid biomass wastes, date stone and jojoba solid waste, was experimentally examined for their potential application in combustion and propulsion systems. The fuels were tested in a hybrid rocket-like combustion environment, and the test result was analyzed with combustion and propulsion parameters. The performance of both fuels was comparatively evaluated and compared with a conventional hydrocarbon fuel in a hybrid rocket, with paraffin wax serving as a baseline. A compression device was introduced to compress the solid biomass wastes into a circular-shaped fuel grain compatible with a hybrid rocket combustion chamber with a hot surface ignitor. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and chemical equilibrium analysis (CEA) results revealed that the performance of the biomass fuel can be comparable to conventionally used hydrocarbon paraffin-wax-based propellant within a certain range of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio, in terms of theoretical specific impulse performance. Through experimental performance tests, it was found that the compressed biomass fuel grains were successfully ignited and produced thrust. Both biomass fuels tested in a hybrid rocket combustion chamber are expected to pave the way for further developments in biomass fuels in the waste-to-energy field for their application in combustion and propulsion systems, potentially replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number181
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • biomass fuel
  • combustion
  • date stone
  • hybrid rocket
  • jojoba
  • propulsion
  • waste-to-energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering


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