Comparative degradation of a thiazole pollutant by an advanced oxidation process and an enzymatic approach

Khadega A. Al-Maqdi, Soleiman M. Hisaindee, Muhammad A. Rauf, Syed Salman Ashraf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Organic pollutants, especially those found in water bodies, pose a direct threat to various aquatic organisms as well as humans. A variety of different remediation approaches, including chemical and biological methods, have been developed for the degradation of various organic pollutants. However, comparative mechanistic studies of pollutant degradation by these different systems are almost non-existent. In this study, the degradation of a model thiazole pollutant, thioflavin T (ThT), was carried out in the presence of either an advanced oxidation process (ultraviolet (UV) + H2O2) or a chloroperoxidase enzyme system (CPO + H2O2). The degradation was followed both spectrophotometrically and using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LCMS), and the products formed were identified using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results show that the two remediation approaches produced different sets of intermediates, with only one common species (a demethylated form of ThT). This suggests that different degradation schemes were operating in the two systems. Interestingly, one of the major intermediates produced by the CPO + H2O2 system was a chlorinated form of thioflavin. Phytotoxicity studies showed that the CPO + H2O2-treated ThT solution was significantly (p <0.05) less toxic than the UV + H2O2-treated ThT solution. This is the first time that a comparative mechanistic study showing in detail the intermediates generated in chemical and biological remediation methods has been presented. Furthermore, the results show that different remediation systems have very different degradation schemes and result in products having different toxicities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number64
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2017


  • Advanced oxidation process
  • Bioremediation
  • Chloroperoxidase
  • Enzymes
  • Peroxidases
  • Thiazole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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