Comprehensive optimization of the dispersion of mixing particles in an inert-particle spouted-bed reactor (Ipsbr) system

Ameera F. Mohammad, Aya A.H.I. Mourad, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Muftah H. El-Naas, Bart Van der Bruggen, Mohamed H. Al-Marzouqi, Fadi Alnaimat, Mohamed Al Musharfy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Effective gas dispersion and liquid mixing are significant parameters in the design of an inert-particle spouted-bed reactor (IPSBR) system. Solid particles can be used to ensure good mixing and an efficient rate of mass and heat transfer between the gas and liquid. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with the discrete phase model (DPM) were developed to investigate the effect of the feed gas velocity (0.5–1.5 m/s), orifice diameter (0.001–0.005 m), gas head (0.15–0.35 m), particle diameter (0.009–0.0225 m), and mixing-particle-to-reactor-volume fraction (2.0–10.0 vol.%) on the solid mass concentration, average solid velocity, and average solid volume fraction in the upper, middle, and conical regions of the reactor. Statistical analysis was performed using a second-order response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) to obtain the optimal operating conditions. Selected parameters were optimized to maximize the responses in the middle and upper regions, and minimize them in the conical region. Such conditions produced a high interfacial area and fewer dead zones owing to good particle dispersion. The optimal process variables were feed gas velocity of 1.5 m/s, orifice diameter of 0.001 m, gas head of 0.2025 m, a particle diameter of 0.01 m, and a particle load of 0.02 kg. The minimum average air velocity and maximum air volume fraction were observed under the same operating conditions. This confirmed the novelty of the reactor, which could work at a high feed gas velocity while maintaining a high residence time and gas volume fraction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1921
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • CFD-DPM simulation
  • Gas–liquid reactor
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Inert mixing particles
  • Particle dispersion
  • Response surface methodology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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