Correlation analysis between cytokines’ profile, autoimmune antibodies and the duration of type 1 diabetes: A case control study in a specialized children’s centre in Riyadh

Mohammed Al-Dubayee, Amir Babiker, Abdulaziz Alkewaibeen, Abdulrahman Alkhalifah, Tammam Alanazi, Maysa Nogoud, Anas Alotaibi, Faisal Alotaibi, Firas Almetairi, Mohammed A. Alrowaily, Emad Masuadi, Amre Nasr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cytokines in children with T1D living in Saudi Arabia and their correlation with disease duration and autoimmune antibody markers. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in the endocrine clinic of King Abdullah Specialized Children’s Hospital in Riyadh. A total of 274 T1D and healthy control children were enrolled in the study. 5 mL of venous blood samples were collected in the morning after 9 to 12 h of fasting in BD Vacutainer® EDTA tubes and centrifuged at 250g for 15 min at. Plasma was then stored at −20°C for detection of anti-islet, anti-GAD antibodies (Abs), and C-peptide using commercial ELISA kits from Thermo Fisher Scientific. The levels of cytokines were measured using commercial sandwich ELISA kits from Abcam. Results: Median differences in cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-18, IL-21, IL-35, and IL-37) were significantly higher in T1D patients compared with healthy controls (p-value <.001). Spearman’s Rho correlation indicated that TNFα, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-21 correlated significantly with T1D Abs (p-value =.01). HbA1C correlated negatively with IL-35 and IL-37, and positively with IL-18 (p-value =.01). Linear regression analysis showed a significant increase in anti-glutamic acid antibodies (GAD) in patients with >3 years of T1D duration. Conclusion: Autoantibodies remained positive at high levels in our patients over a 3-year duration of the disease and correlated with specific cytokines. The clear correlations with disease duration and profile of specific cytokines could be targets for future therapeutic interventions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Volume37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2023

Keywords

  • autoimmune biomarkers
  • cytokines
  • Saudi children
  • T1D markers
  • type 1 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

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