Creating a framework for understanding and defining flipped learning

Mik Fanguy, Jamie Costley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Although flipped instruction is becoming increasingly common, there is still discussion and debate regarding how to define it and distinguish it from other forms of instruction. This article proposes a framework with which to visualize the constituent parts of blended learning and to define what makes a course “flipped.” The definition of flipped instruction provided by this framework can be summarized as instruction that provides large amounts of information online along with face-to-face (F2F) engagement but provides little information during F2F meetings and has relatively low online interaction. This article also presents the results of an empirical study (n = 54) in which students in a flipped scientif ic writing bourse participated in an online discussion forum, and a correlation was found between posting discussion topics and scores on in-class group writing assignments. A further connection was found between scores on these group writing assignments and student performance on individual writing assignments. Based on these results, the study recommends that online discussion forums can be used to better connect the online and F2F components of a flipped course.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Educators Online
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Flipped classrooms
  • Korea
  • Online discussion forum
  • Online interaction
  • Online video lecture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


Dive into the research topics of 'Creating a framework for understanding and defining flipped learning'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this