CrossQuestion Game: A Group-Based Assessment for Gamified Flipped Classroom Experience Using the ARCS Model

Usman Durrani, Omar Hujran, Ahmad Samed Al-Adwan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The importance of formal online education has been felt like never before because of the ongoing nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. Researchers and academics are continuously experimenting with combinations of established pedagogies, tools, and technologies to enhance or sustain the student learning process and motivation. For this study, we have designed and developed a multi-player game called CrossQuestion to explore the combined effect of applying gamification and flipped classroom pedagogies using the ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction) model guidelines and its application in the obligatory IT foundation online course during the pandemic. We delivered this course to 79 undergraduate (mostly) non-IT students in Ajman University, UAE. Students were randomly divided into a non-gamified cohort (35 students gone through lecture-based instructions and paper-based assessments–Spring 2019-20–pre-COVID-19 face to face environment) and a gamified flipped classroom cohort (44 students, played the CrossQuestion game–Spring 2020-21–during COVID-19 online environment). We collected the survey data anonymously through our customized Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) tool and then performed descriptive analysis, t-test, and regression analysis to address the research hypothesis. We found a significant relationship between learning motivational factors and learning effectiveness. We also found the positive influence of our game on students’ motivation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberep355
JournalContemporary Educational Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • ARCS motivation model
  • Educational game
  • Flipped classroom
  • Gamification
  • Instructional materials motivation survey (IMMS)
  • Motivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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