Current state of Salmonella, campylobacter and listeria in the food chain across the arab countries: A descriptive review

Ihab Habib, Mohamed Yousif Ibrahim Mohamed, Mushtaq Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Foodborne infections caused by bacterial pathogens are a common cause of human illness in the Middle East, with a substantial burden of economic loss and public health consequences. This review aims at elucidating recent literature on the prevalence of Non‐Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), Campylobacter and Listeria monocytogens in the food chain in the Arab countries, and to consolidate available evidence on the public health burden and the status of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among the concerned three pathogens. The reviewed evidence points to a scarcity of understanding of the magnitude of NTS in the food chain in the Arab countries. Additionally, not much work has been done at the molecular characterization level to address the source‐attribution of NTS in the Arab World. Very few surveys have been done on Campylobacter in the food chain in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) countries. There is a gap in quantitative (counts/numbers) surveillance efforts for Campylobacter in the chicken meat supply across all Arab countries, despite the availabil-ity of some qualitative (presence/absence) surveillance data. While there are several reports on L. monocytogenes in animal‐sourced foods, notably in North African Arab countries, fewer are pub-lished on L. monocytogenes in plant‐sourced foods. Information on the L. monocytogenes serotypes and strain diversity circulating in the Arab region is widely lacking. Antibiotic resistance in the three pathogens is not fully understood across the Arab region, despite some reports indicating varying trends at the human–food interface. The literature evidence presented in this review stresses that Salmonella, Campylobacter and L. monocytogenes continue to challenge food safety and public health in the Arab countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2369
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • Food safety
  • Foodborne infection
  • Middle East
  • One health
  • Zoonoses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology
  • Health(social science)
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science


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