Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. An imbalanced microbiome (dysbiosis) can predispose to many diseases including CD. The role of oral dysbiosis in CD is poorly understood. We aimed to explore microbiome signature and dysbiosis of the salivary microbiome in CD patients, and correlate microbiota changes to the level of inflammation. Saliva samples were collected from healthy controls (HC) and CD patients (n = 40 per group). Salivary microbiome was analyzed by sequencing the entire 16S rRNA gene. Inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and calprotectin) were measured and correlated with microbiome diversity. Five dominant species were significantly enriched in CD, namely Veillonella dispar, Megasphaera stantonii, Prevotella jejuni, Dolosigranulum pigrum and Lactobacillus backii. Oral health had a significant impact on the microbiome since various significant features were cariogenic as Streptococcus mutans or periopathogenic such as Fusobacterium periodonticum. Furthermore, disease activity, duration and frequency of relapses impacted the oral microbiota. Treatment with monoclonal antibodies led to the emergence of a unique species called Simonsiella muelleri. Combining immunomodulatory agents with monoclonal antibodies significantly increased multiple pathogenic species such as Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Loss of diversity in CD was shown by multiple diversity indices. There was a significant negative correlation between gut inflammatory biomarkers (particularly calprotectin) and α-diversity, suggesting more inflammation associated with diversity loss in CD. Salivary dysbiosis was evident in CD patients, with unique microbiota signatures and perturbed species that can serve as disease biomarkers or potential targets for microbiota modulation. The interplay of various factors collectively contributed to dysbiosis, although each factor probably had a unique effect on the microbiome. The emergence of pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity of CD patients is alarming since they can disturb gut homeostasis and induce inflammation by swallowing, or hematogenous spread of microbiota, their metabolites, or generated inflammatory mediators.
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