Decoding Multi-Class Motor Imagery and Motor Execution Tasks Using Riemannian Geometry Algorithms on Large EEG Datasets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The use of Riemannian geometry decoding algorithms in classifying electroencephalography-based motor-imagery brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) trials is relatively new and promises to outperform the current state-of-the-art methods by overcoming the noise and nonstationarity of electroencephalography signals. However, the related literature shows high classification accuracy on only relatively small BCI datasets. The aim of this paper is to provide a study of the performance of a novel implementation of the Riemannian geometry decoding algorithm using large BCI datasets. In this study, we apply several Riemannian geometry decoding algorithms on a large offline dataset using four adaptation strategies: baseline, rebias, supervised, and unsupervised. Each of these adaptation strategies is applied in motor execution and motor imagery for both scenarios 64 electrodes and 29 electrodes. The dataset is composed of four-class bilateral and unilateral motor imagery and motor execution of 109 subjects. We run several classification experiments and the results show that the best classification accuracy is obtained for the scenario where the baseline minimum distance to Riemannian mean has been used. The mean accuracy values up to 81.5% for motor execution, and up to 76.4% for motor imagery. The accurate classification of EEG trials helps to realize successful BCI applications that allow effective control of devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5051
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Riemannian geometry decoding algorithm (RGDA)
  • brain–computer interface (BCI)
  • electroencephalography/electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • motor execution (ME)
  • motor imagery (MI)
  • multiclass classification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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