Determinants of international tourism demand: Evidence from Australian states and territories

Muhammad Shafiullah, Luke Emeka Okafor, Usman Khalid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


This article explores whether the determinants of international tourism demand differ by states and territories in Australia. This is the first attempt at econometric modelling of international tourism demand in the states and territories of Australia. A demand model is specified where international visits to states and territories is a function of world income, state-level transportation costs, stock of foreign-born residents, the Australian real exchange rate and the price levels of international and domestic substitutes. Panel and time series econometric techniques are employed to test the model variables for stationarity, cointegration and direction of causality. Panel and time series cointegration tests show that the model is cointegrated. The causality analysis indicates that all explanatory variables Granger cause international visits to the Australian states and territories. Further, we show that the impacts of the determinants of international tourism vary by states and territories. The results underscore the importance of targeted policymaking that takes into account the economic and social structure of each state and territory instead of designing tourism policies on the basis of one-size-fits-all approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-296
Number of pages23
JournalTourism Economics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Australia
  • immigration
  • regional
  • state-level
  • tourism demand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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