Determination of alkylresorcinol metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Matti Marklund, Rikard Landberg, Per Åman, Afaf Kamal-Eldin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are phenolic lipids present at high concentrations in the outer parts of rye and wheat kernels and have been proposed as biomarkers for intake of whole grain and bran products of these cereals. AR are absorbed in the small intestine and after hepatic metabolism two major metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), are excreted in urine either as such or as conjugates. Urine samples from nine individuals were incubated with different enzymes to assess type and extent of conjugates. In comparison with DHBA, which was mostly found in the free form, the less polar DHPPA was conjugated to a greater extent and the major conjugates were glucuronides. In this method, urine samples were hydrolyzed using β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia and syringic acid was used as internal standard. Samples, silylated with BSTFA, were analyzed by GC-MS utilizing a BP-5 fused silica capillary column and single ion monitoring of molecular ions (m/z 370 [DHBA], m/z 398 [DHPPA]). Recoveries of DHBA and DHPPA were estimated to be 94% and 93%, respectively. The average intra-assay/inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9/5.7% for DHBA and 7.6/9.3% for DHPPA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)888-894
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Issue number11-12
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Alkylresorcinols
  • Biomarker
  • GC-MS
  • Metabolites
  • Whole grain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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