Development and implementation of an in-hospital pharmacist emergency response simulation training curriculum

Kaylee Marino, Kaitlin E. Crowley, Lydia Ware, Kenneth Lupi, Afaf Sulaiman Alblooshi, Faten Abdullah Alradini, Andrew Eyre

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Medical simulation is an effective educational tool used to increase confidence, improve knowledge, and refine skills when responding to high-acuity situations. Despite established roles of the pharmacist on the hospital code team, most institutions lack formalized pharmacist training for code team responses. Objective: This pre-post analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of a didactic and simulation-based code response training for pharmacists on self-perceived improvement and preparedness when responding to in-hospital medical emergencies. Methods: An emergency response curriculum (ERC) was developed for pharmacists and pharmacy residents at our institution. The curriculum, led by 4 lead clinical pharmacy specialists, included a 60-minute didactic code competency lecture followed by 2 medical emergency simulations and a debrief after each scenario. After completion of the simulation portion of the ERC, participants were given a survey to complete that assessed their confidence using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very unconfident to 5 = very confident) in completing the course objectives before and after the ERC. Results: Seventy-two pharmacists completed the ERC and 60 completed the postcourse survey. Of those who completed the postcourse survey, 70% were pharmacy residents. Using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very unconfident to 5 = very confident), median participant confidence rose from 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 2-4) before the session to 4 (IQR 3-5) after the session (P < 0.001). Of the participants, 95% believed the ERC training should be required annually or multiple times a year and 100% of respondents felt the ERC training was beneficial. Conclusion: Development of a pharmacist ERC including didactic and simulation-based learning improved the confidence and preparedness of pharmacists when participating as members of the hospital code team. Future studies should continue to evaluate pharmacist training and curriculum development in code team responses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102053
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (nursing)
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology


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