Development and material properties of new hybrid plywood from oil palm biomass

H. P.S. Abdul Khalil, M. R. Nurul Fazita, A. H. Bhat, M. Jawaid, N. A. Nik Fuad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

119 Citations (Scopus)


Shortage of wood as a raw material has forced wood-based industries to find alternative local raw materials. Currently, oil palm biomass is undergoing research and development (R & D) and appears to be the most viable alternative. This work examines the conversion of oil palm trunk (OPT) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) into new plywood and analyses its properties. We prepared five-ply veneer hybrid plywood (alternating layers of oil palm trunk veneer and empty fruit bunch mat) with different spread levels (300 g/m2 and 500 g/m2) of resins (phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde). We then studied the mechanical and physical properties of the plywood. The results show that hybridisation of EFB with OPT improves some properties of plywood, such as bending strength, screw withdrawal and shear strength. The thermal properties of the plywood panels were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The panels glued with phenol formaldehyde with a spread level of 500 g/m2 showed better thermal stability than the other panels. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the fibre matrix bonding and surface morphology of the plywood at different glue spread levels of the resins. The fibre-matrix bonding showed good improvement for the hybrid panel glued with 500 g/m2 phenol formaldehyde.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-424
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials and Design
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Empty fruit bunch [A]
  • Hybrid plywood [B]
  • Oil palm trunk veneer [A]

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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