Development of Higher Education in Bahrain

Aizhan Shomotova, Tatiana Karabchuk

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter starts with the historical background of higher education development in Bahrain in terms of the number of universities, literacy rates and dynamics in gross student enrollment ratio. Then it discusses the higher education budget expenditures and research and development. Also, the quality assurance and internationalization of higher education and teaching efficiency (number of academic staff in tertiary education and pupil-teacher ratio) of universities are highlighted. The chapter also provides an overview of research productivity of universities in Bahrain. Finally, the chapter discloses the current challenges for research development in the Higher Education and Training Index emphasizing the problem of retracted publications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Past, Present, and Future of Higher Education in the Arabian Gulf Region
Subtitle of host publicationCritical Comparative Perspectives in a Neoliberal Era
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9781000644098
ISBN (Print)9780367503512
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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