Development of the pharmacogenomics and genomics literacy framework for pharmacists

Azhar T. Rahma, Iffat Elbarazi, Bassam R. Ali, George P. Patrinos, Luai A. Ahmed, Mahanna Elsheik, Fatma Al-Maskari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Pharmacists play a unique role in integrating genomic medicine and pharmacogenomics into the clinical practice and to translate pharmacogenomics from bench to bedside. However, the literature suggests that the knowledge gap in pharmacogenomics is a major challenge; therefore, developing pharmacists’ skills and literacy to achieve this anticipated role is highly important. We aim to conceptualize a personalized literacy framework for the adoption of genomic medicine and pharmacogenomics by pharmacists in the United Arab Emirates with possible regional and global relevance. Results: A qualitative approach using focus groups was used to design and to guide the development of a pharmacogenomics literacy framework. The Health Literacy Skills framework was used as a guide to conceptualize the pharmacogenomics literacy for pharmacists. The framework included six major components with specific suggested factors to improve pharmacists’ pharmacogenomics literacy. Major components include individual inputs, demand, skills, knowledge, attitude and sociocultural factors. Conclusion: This framework confirms a holistic bottom-up approach toward the implementation of pharmacogenomics. Personalized medicine entails personalized efforts and frameworks. Similar framework can be created for other healthcare providers, patients and stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number62
JournalHuman Genomics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Attitude
  • Framework
  • Genomics
  • Knowledge
  • Literacy
  • Pharmacists
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Skills
  • United Arab Emirates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Drug Discovery


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