Galanin was measured by radioimmunoassay in whole thickness extracts of the gastrointestinal wall from four species and in extracts from separate layers of human small intestine. The immunoreactivity was characterized using gel chramatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Two antibodies were employed, which were characterized as non-C-terminal (Gal 8) and C-terminal (Gal 9) using a C-terminal galanin 10-29 fragment. Substantial quantities of galanin immunoreactivity were found, mainly localized at the muscle layer. Both intramolecular and intermolecular heterogeneity was apparent. Two molecular forms exist in humans (Kav 0.58, 0.69). The molecular heterogeneity in humans, rats, and guinea pigs may be localized near the C-terminus of the galanin molecule. A C-terminal extension of one human galanin form is likely (Kav 0.58). These findings give radioimmunologic evidence for a neurocrine origin of galanin. The chromatographic variations suggest that extrapolation of experimental results between species should be treated with caution.
ASJC Scopus subject areas