Do greenfield FDI inflows promote international tourism?

Sasidaran Gopalan, Usman Khalid, Luke Okafor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To what extent do Greenfield foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to emerging markets and developing economies drive their tourist inflows? Using a novel dataset on bilateral Greenfield FDI, this study is the first to empirically investigate the impact of bilateral Greenfield FDI on bilateral tourist flows. The analysis is based on a large cross-country dyadic dataset comprising 103 origin countries and 63 destination countries over the period 2003–2017. The findings robustly establish that greater flows of bilateral Greenfield FDI stimulate bilateral tourism flows, and this effect is stronger for country pairs that are linguistically further apart and/or with greater physical distance. These findings are not susceptible to potential endogeneity issues.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCurrent Issues in Tourism
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Foreign direct investment (FDI)
  • distance
  • emerging markets and developing economies
  • gravity model
  • greenfield FDI
  • inbound tourism flows

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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