Does female representation on corporate boards improve intellectual capital efficiency?

Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Bilal Farooq, Ammad Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between female representation on corporate boards and intellectual capital (IC) efficiency – while prior studies focus on the relationship between gender diversity and firms’ financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on data from top 500 UK listed firms for 2007–2016 (3,279 firm-years), this study employs an adjusted-value-added intellectual coefficient as a measure of IC efficiency. Further, the two-step system-generalised method of moments has been applied to account for endogeneity issues. Findings: The results reveal a significant positive relationship between female representation on boards and IC efficiency, including human capital, structural/innovation capital and financial capital efficiency. These results are robust to alternative proxies for the independent variable and difference-in-difference estimation. Practical implications: The results posit that female representation on boards is associated with IC efficiency, which is vital for firms’ value creation and competitive advantage in the knowledge-economy era. The study also endorses current legislation to increase female representation on corporate boards. Originality/value: This is among the limited studies to explore the role of female representation on boards in IC efficiency – while most prior studies relate IC efficiency to financial performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)680-700
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Intellectual Capital
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 28 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Boardroom gender diversity
  • Intellectual capital efficiency
  • System GMM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • General Business,Management and Accounting


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