Does the hip reflect the centre of mass swimming kinematics?

P. Figueiredo, J. P. Vilas Boas, J. Maia, P. Gonçalves, R. J. Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the hip point and the centre of mass for kinematical parameters (displacement, velocity and acceleration) in the three axes of motion. One complete stroke cycle was analyzed in eight swimmers performing a 25 m front crawl swim test at high intensity. Within-subject correlation coefficients were computed between the centre of mass and both hips, as well as mean of the errors, RMS error and a paired sample t-test. High correlation coefficients were found for the displacement in the horizontal direction (r=1.00 for both hips) and low to moderate correlation coefficients (r=0.01 to r=0.54) were found for all other studied variables. Moreover, moderate to large RMS errors were observed: (i) between 0.05 and 0.15 for the displacement; (ii) between 0.16 and 0.30 for the velocity and (iii) between 5.28 and 7.86 for the acceleration. Complementarily, RMS errors for the intracyclic velocity variation were between 0.07 and 0.18. Considering the centre of mass and hip values statistical differences were found in velocity in x, acceleration in x and y, and intracyclic velocity variation in y axes. Therefore, results suggest that the hip point does not represent most kinematical parameters of the estimated centre of mass in front crawl swimming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)779-781
Number of pages3
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomechanics
  • Digitization
  • Front crawl
  • Three-dimensional

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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