Dogfish glucagon analogues counter hyperglycaemia and enhance both insulin secretion and action in diet-induced obese diabetic mice

F. P.M. O'Harte, M. T. Ng, A. M. Lynch, J. M. Conlon, P. R. Flatt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: To investigate the antidiabetic actions of three dogfish glucagon peptide analogues [known glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon receptor co-agonists] after chronic administration in diet-induced high-fat-diet-fed diabetic mice. Materials and methods: National Institutes of Health Swiss mice were pre-conditioned to a high-fat diet (45% fat) for 100 days, and control mice were fed a normal diet (10% fat). Normal diet control and high-fat-fed control mice received twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline injections, while the high-fat-fed treatment groups (n = 8) received twice-daily injections of exendin-4(1-39), [S2a]dogfish glucagon, [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) or [S2a]dogfish glucagon-Lys30-γ-glutamyl-PAL (25 nmol/kg body weight) for 51 days. Results: After dogfish glucagon analogue treatment, there was a rapid and sustained decrease in non-fasting blood glucose and an associated insulinotropic effect (analysis of variance, p <.05 to <.001) compared with saline-treated high-fat-fed controls. All peptide treatments significantly improved i.p. and oral glucose tolerance with concomitant increased insulin secretion compared with saline-treated high-fat-fed controls (p <.05 to <.001). After chronic treatment, no receptor desensitization was observed but insulin sensitivity was enhanced for all peptide-treated groups (p <.01 to <.001) except [S2a]dogfish glucagon. Both exendin-4 and [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) significantly reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations compared with those found in lean controls (p =.0105 and p =.0048, respectively). Pancreatic insulin content was not affected by peptide treatments but [S2a]dogfish glucagon and [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) decreased pancreatic glucagon by 28%-34% (p =.0221 and p =.0075, respectively). The percentage of β-cell area within islets was increased by exendin-4 and peptide analogue treatment groups compared with high-fat-fed controls and the β-cell area decreased (p <.05 to <.01). Conclusions: Overall, dogfish glucagon co-agonist analogues had several beneficial metabolic effects, showing therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-1024
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • chronic study
  • co-agonist
  • diabetic mice
  • dogfish glucagon
  • glucagon-like peptide-1
  • peptide analogues
  • therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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