Doxorubicin (DOXO) is an effective drug that is used in the treatment of a large number of cancers. Regardless of its important chemotherapeutic characteristics, its usage is restricted because of its serious side effects; the most obvious is cardiotoxicity, which can manifest acutely or years after completion of treatment, leading to left ventricular dysfunction, dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Galectin 3 (Gal-3) is a beta galactoside binding lectin that has different roles in normal and pathophysiological conditions. Gal-3 was found to be upregulated in animal models, correlating with heart failure, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. Male C57B6/J and B6.Cg-Lgals3 <tm 1 Poi>/J Gal-3 knockout (KO) mice were used for a mouse model of acute DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. Mice were given DOXO or vehicle (normal saline), after which the mice again had free access to food and water. Heart and plasma samples were collected 5 days after DOXO administration and were used for tissue processing, staining, electron microscopy, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was a significant increase in the heart concentration of Gal-3 in Gal-3 wild type DOXO-treated mice when compared with the sham control. There were significantly higher concentrations of heart cleaved caspase-3, plasma troponin I, plasma lactate dehydrogenase, and plasma creatine kinase in Gal-3 KO DOXO-treated mice than in Gal-3 wild type DOXO-treated mice. Moreover, there were significantly higher heart antioxidant proteins and lower oxidative stress in Gal-3 wild type DOXO-treated mice than in Gal-3 KO DOXO-treated mice. In conclusion, Gal-3 can affect the redox pathways and regulate cell survival and death of the myocardium following acute DOXO injury.
- oxidative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry