Cisplatin (CP) is a potent anticancer drug used to treat solid tumors. Its use, however, is dose-limited by its nephrotoxicity. We aimed to compare the effect of melatonin and curcumin given singly, with that of a combination of these two agents on CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. CP (6 mg/kg, given once intraperitoneally) induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by several significant adverse physiological, biochemical and histopathological actions that included a reduction in body weight, increased urine production, and significant alterations in some conventional and novel renal damage indices in plasma, urine and kidneys. CP also elevated several pro-inflammatory cytokines and caused renal oxidative/nitrosative stress. Supplementation with either curcumin (200 mg/kg) or melatonin (10 mg /kg) given singly by oral gavage for eight consecutive days prior to CP injection and four days thereafter, significantly mitigated the adverse renal effects of CP, by attenuating the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators and improving antioxidant competence in renal tissues of CP- treated rats. When curcumin and melatonin were given together, the ameliorative effect was augmented in some of the measured indices e.g. tumor necrosis factor alpha, cystatin C, uric acid, phosphorus in plasma and, urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. Renal platinum concertation was reduced more with curcumin than that with melatonin, while the reduction was maximized when both melatonin and curcumin were given. Pending further pharmacological and toxicological studies, a combination of these two agents is likely to be mor effective in mitigating the adverse renal effects of CP administered to cancer patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas