Effect of different cooling strategies on surface quality and power consumption in finishing end milling of stainless steel 316

Adel T. Abbas, Saqib Anwar, Elshaimaa Abdelnasser, Monis Luqman, Jaber E. Abu Qudeiri, Ahmed Elkaseer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, an experimental investigation into the machinability of AISI 316 alloy during finishing end milling operation under different cooling conditions and with varying process parameters is presented. Three environmental-friendly cooling strategies were utilized, namely, dry, minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) and MQL with nanoparticles (Al2O3), and the variable process parameters were cutting speed and feed rate. Power consumption and surface quality were utilized as the machining responses to characterize the process performance. Surface quality was examined by evaluating the final surface roughness and surface integrity of the machined surface. The results revealed a reduction in power consumption when MQL and MQL + Al2O3 strategies were applied compared to the dry case by averages of 4.7% and 8.6%, respectively. Besides, a considerable reduction in the surface roughness was noticed with average values of 40% and 44% for MQL and MQL + Al2O3 strategies, respectively, when compared to the dry condition. At the same time, the reduction in generated surface roughness obtained by using MQL + Al2O3 condition was marginal (5.9%) compared with using MQL condition. Moreover, the results showed that the improvement obtained in the surface quality when using MQL and MQL + Al2O3 coolants increased at higher cutting speed and feed rate, and thus, higher productivity can be achieved without deteriorating final surface quality, compared to dry conditions. From scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, debris, furrows, plastic deformation irregular friction marks, and bores were found in the surface texture when machining under dry conditions. A slight smoother surface with a nano-polishing effect was found in the case of MQL + Al2O3 compared to the MQL and dry cooling strategies. This proves the effectiveness of lubricant with nanoparticles in reducing the friction and thermal damages on the machined surface as the friction marks were still observed when machining with MQL comparable with the case of MQL + Al2O3.

Original languageEnglish
Article number903
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2 2021


  • Cooling strategies
  • Dry condition
  • Finishing end milling operation
  • MQL
  • Nanoparticles based cutting fluids
  • Power consumption
  • Stainless steel 316
  • Surface roughness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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