Effect of Eugenol, Vanillin, and β-Resorcylic Acid on Foodborne Pathogen Survival in Marinated Camel Meat

Tareq M. Osaili, Anas A. Al-Nabulsi, Fayeza Hasan, Dinesh K. Dhanasekaran, Ayman Z.S. Hussain, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Farah Naja, Hadia Radwan, Moez Al Islam Ezzat Faris, Amin N. Olaimat, Mutamed Ayyash, Reyad S. Obaid, Richard Holley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The combined inhibitory effect of essential oils (EOs) with meat‐based marinades has not been fully studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to gauge the effect of a yogurt‐based marinade when individually combined with three EOs, namely eugenol (EU), vanillin (VA), or β‐resorcylic acid (BR) on camel meat cubes inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during storage. Fresh camel meat cubes of 10 g were inoculated with bacteria and dipped in the mixture of marinade and EO. Overall, the study had six EO treatments (EU 0.5%, EU 1%, VA 0.5%, VA 1%, BR 0.5%, and BR 1%) and two controls (meat without marinade and marinated meat). Treated meat cubes were stored at 4°C or 10°C for 1, 4, and 7 d. Adding only marinade to the camel meat at 10°C decreased the pathogens by 0.8–2.4 log CFU/g. At 10°C, BR decreased L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. by 2.0, 1.5, and 1.3 log CFU/g, while EU caused a decrease (p < 0.05) of 1.9, 1.2, and 0.9 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, VA caused a reduction in these microorganisms of 1.3, 1.1, and 1.0 log CFU/g, respectively (p < 0.05). The combination of marinade and EO resulted in a decrease of the pathogens ranging from 0.9–1.4 and 2.8–3.7 log CFU/g at 4 and 10°C, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO alone or when combined with marinade was higher at 10°C than at 4°C with all three pathogens at both 0.5% and 1%. Overall, EOs were found to enhance the microbial safety of camel meat. In addition, they are antimicrobials that occur naturally, require a minimum investment, and may prove to be a great asset for marinated camel meat producers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100038
JournalJournal of Food Protection
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Escherichia coli O157:H7
  • Essential Oils
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Salmonella spp
  • Temperature Abuse
  • Yogurt marinade

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Eugenol, Vanillin, and β-Resorcylic Acid on Foodborne Pathogen Survival in Marinated Camel Meat'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this