Effect of support size for stimulating hydrogen production in phenol steam reforming using Ni-embedded TiO2 nanocatalyst

Khaled Saeed Baamran, Muhammad Tahir, Mahadhir Mohamed, Asif Hussain Khoja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Fabrication of reducible titanium dioxide (TiO2) loaded with nickel (Ni) to maximize metal-support interaction for stimulating hydrogen (H2) production via phenol steam reforming (PSR) has been investigated. Catalysts, synthesized by sol-gel assisted impregnation method, were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, BET, H2-TPR and TEM techniques. The effects of three different catalyst sizes namely Ni/TiO2-A (11-49 nm), Ni/TiO2-B (22-196 nm) and Ni/TiO2-C (69-205 nm) for their mass transfer limitation, catalytic activity and coke formations were evaluated. Using smaller particle sizes of TiO2 higher BET surface area with good morphology and Ni dispersion was achieved. The Ni/TiO2-A sample shows highest phenol reforming activity with phenol conversion and H2 yield of 98.3 and 76.9 %, respectively. When large sizes TiO2 particles in Ni/TiO2-B and Ni/TiO2-C samples were employed, phenol conversion of 93.7 and 73.1 % and H2 yield of 71.2 and 55.6%, respectively, were achieved. This reveals that smaller support particle sizes have higher conversion and yields, and activity was declined when support size was increased to larger particle sizes. This was obviously small particle sizes resulted in larger surface area, higher metal dispersion and efficient surface reactions with minimum internal diffusion effects. Furthermore, stability analysis reveals continuous H2 production over smaller particles without obvious deactivation, however, activity was declined over time on stream using large support size due to obvious coke depositions. Thus, supports sizes and interaction of metal and support has significant contribution to maximize activity and stability and can be further employed in reforming systems for renewable hydrogen production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103604
JournalJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Hydrogen production
  • Mass transfer effects
  • Phenol steam reforming
  • Reducible Ni/TiO
  • Support size
  • Synergistic effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of support size for stimulating hydrogen production in phenol steam reforming using Ni-embedded TiO2 nanocatalyst'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this