Effects of the Oxygen Content and Light Intensity on Milk Photooxidation Using Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis

Dongfei Tan, Aijin Ma, Shaolei Wang, Qingyang Zhang, Man Jia, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Huaxing Wu, Gang Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Photooxidation is the main cause of milk quality deterioration during processing and transportation. Oxygen and light are responsible for dairy milk photooxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristic metabolites after photooxidation and how they are affected by oxygen exposure and light intensity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis were used for the high-throughput evaluation of milk photooxidation. Four products were identified as biomarkers: uric acid, riboflavin, lumichrome, and indole-3-carboxaldehyde. Afterward, the effects of oxygen content and light intensity on the biomarkers were investigated, and a sensory evaluation was performed. Both oxygen exposure and light intensity affected the contents of photooxidation biomarkers in milk samples. The sensory score correlated well with the oxygen content but not with the light intensity. The untargeted metabolomic method was an effective tool to identify biomarkers for milk photooxidation evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7488-7497
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - Jul 7 2021


  • UPLC-Triple TOF-MS
  • light
  • milk
  • oxygen
  • photooxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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