Effects of Waterpipe Smoke Exposure on Experimentally Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Mice

Sumaya Beegam, Suhail Al-Salam, Nur Elena Zaaba, Ozaz Elzaki, Badreldin H. Ali, Abderrahim Nemmar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor in the onset of kidney disease. To date, there have been no reports on the influence of waterpipe smoke (WPS) in experimentally induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) models. We studied the effects and mechanisms of actions of WPS on a mouse model of adenine-induced CKD. Mice fed either a normal diet, or an adenine-added diet and were exposed to either air or WPS (30 min/day and 5 days/week) for four consecutive weeks. Plasma creatinine, urea and indoxyl sulfate increased and creatinine clearance decreased in adenine + WPS versus either WPS or adenine + saline groups. The urinary concentrations of kidney injury molecule-1 and adiponectin and the activities of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase were augmented in adenine + WPS compared with either adenine + air or WPS groups. In the kidney tissue, several markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were higher in adenine + WPS than in either adenine + air or WPS groups. Compared with the controls, WPS inhalation in mice with CKD increased DNA damage, and urinary concentration of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. Furthermore, the expressions of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (ERK and p38) were elevated in the kidneys of adenine + WPS group, compared with the controls. Likewise, the kidneys of adenine + WPS group revealed more marked histological tubular injury, chronic inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, WPS inhalation aggravates kidney injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage and fibrosis in mice with adenine-induced CKD, indicating that WPS exposure intensifies CKD. These effects were associated with a mechanism involving NF-κB, ERK and p38 activations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number585
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • DNA damage
  • chronic kidney disease
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • waterpipe smoke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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