Epidemiology of Epizootic Lymphangitis Among Carthorses in Ethiopia

Musse G. Abdela, Sori Teshale, Mesfin M. Gobena, Aboma Zewde, Hawi Jaleta, Balako Gumi, Gobena Ameni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Epizootic lymphangitis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum variety farciminosum is a debilitating disease incurring considerable economic losses and affecting the welfare of carthorses. Understanding of its epidemiology is important for devising effective prevention and control measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,162 carthorses in 17 towns in Ethiopia between October 2018 and June 2019. Clinical and microscopic examinations, fungal culturing, and polymerase chain reaction were used to undertake this study. The overall prevalence of epizootic lymphangitis was 16.67% (95% CI: 15.55–17.84) in carthorses. Epizootic lymphangitis was detected in carthorses found in 16 of the 17 towns included in the study. The highest prevalence was recorded at Kombolcha Town (33.33; 95% CI: 27.54–39.52) whereas the lowest was recorded at Debre Birhan Town (0.00; 95% CI: 0.00–1.27). The results of univariable firth logistic regression analysis showed that the difference between the prevalence of Kombolcha and the prevalences of all the other towns except Holota and Shashemene were statistically significant. Statistically significantly lower prevalence was observed in other towns. Classification of the cases into different clinical forms showed that 87.18, 4.33, and 0.58% were cutaneous, ocular, and respiratory forms respectively, while the remaining 7.93% (55/694; 95% CI: 6.03–10.19) were classified as mixed form. In terms of the severity of the disease, 28.67, 60.52, and 0.81% were mild, moderate, and severe cases, respectively. The majority of the lesions (43.95%) were observed in the skin followed by forelimbs (14.55%) and neck region (14.27%). Higher mean annual temperature, lower annual rainfall, and higher humidity of the study towns were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of epizootic lymphangitis. In conclusion this study revealed widespread occurrence of epizootic lymphangitis in carthorses yet a heterogeneous prevalence between towns. The veterinary and livestock authorities should take this into account while devising disease control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number762937
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
Publication statusPublished - Dec 10 2021


  • Ethiopia
  • Histoplasma capsulatum variety farciminosum
  • carthorses
  • epidemiology
  • epizootic lymphangitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary


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