Estimated density, population size and distribution of the endangered western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in forest remnants in bangladesh

Habibon Naher, Hassan Al‐razi, Tanvir Ahmed, Sabit Hasan, Areej Jaradat, Sabir Bin Muzaffar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Tropical forests are threatened worldwide due to deforestation. In South and Southeast Asia, gibbons (Hylobatidae) are important to seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Most gibbons are threatened due to deforestation. We studied the western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Bangladesh to determine population size and extent of suitable habitat. We used distance sampling to estimate density across 22 sites in northeastern and southeastern Bangladesh. We used Maxent modeling to determine areas of highly suitable habitat throughout Bangladesh. Density was estimated to be 0.39 ± 0.09groups/km2, and the total estimated population was 468.96 ± 45.56 individuals in 135.31 ± 2.23 groups. The Maxent model accurately predicted gibbon distribution. Vegetation cover, isothermality, annual pre-cipitation, elevation and mean temperature of the warmest quarter influenced distribution. Two areas in the northeast and two areas in the southeast have high potential for gibbon conservation in Bangladesh. We also found significantly more gibbons in areas that had some level of official protection. Thus, we suggest careful evaluation, comprehensive surveys and restoration of habitats identified as suitable for gibbons. We recommend bringing specific sites in the northeastern and southeastern regions under protection to secure habitat for remaining gibbon populations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number490
JournalDiversity
Volume13
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Bangladesh
  • Distribution modeling
  • Habitat loss
  • Habitat suitability
  • Hoolock gibbon
  • Maxent
  • Population estimate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Ecological Modelling
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation

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