Estimation of polymorphisms in the drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 2C19 gene in six major ethnicities of Pakistan

Sagheer Ahmed, Saima Gul, Muhammad Akhlaq, Abrar Hussain, Sidrah Tariq Khan, Halimur Rehman, Muhammad Hanif Bangash, Fadwa Al Mughairbi, Muhammad Hamid Hamdard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Interindividual differences in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 activity may result in variations in the therapeutic response to drugs metabolized by this enzyme. Differences at gene level may translate into protein level with consequent impairment of the enzyme activity. As a result patients with such genetic differences might experience undesirable effects or no effect at all. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of allelic and genotype frequencies of low activity variants of CYP2C19 genes in healthy individuals from six distinct ethnicities of Pakistan. Blood sample was taken from healthy volunteers following informed consent. Isolation of the DNA was followed by the PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Selected samples were sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The frequency of major alleles was 84.93% for CYP2C19*2 and 91.85% for CYP2C19*3, while minor allele was present at 15.06% for CYP2C19*2 and 8.14% for CYP2C19*3. For CYP2C19*2, the frequency of *1*1 genotype was 75.80%, *1*2 was 18.27%, and *2*2 was 5.92% whereas for CYP2C19*3, The frequency of *1*1 genotype was 84.19%, *1*3 was 15.30%, and *3*3 was 0.49% in the Pakistani population. A substantial variation in genotype and allelic frequencies was observed in various ethnicities. Our study demonstrates that a significant Pakistani population has at least one minor allele, which indicates a large number of patients potentially being affected by these variations. Especially, a significant genotype frequency of PM suggests implication for the treatment response and severity/frequency of adverse effects in patients receiving drugs metabolized by CYP2C19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4442-4451
Number of pages10
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Pharmacogenetics
  • balochi
  • cyp2c19 gene polymorphism
  • pakistan
  • pathan
  • punjabi
  • seraiki
  • sindhi
  • urdu

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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