Evaluation of 2,3-Dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepine Derivatives as Potential Tyrosinase Inhibitors: In Vitro and In Silico Studies

Munirah M. Al-Rooqi, Amina Sadiq, Rami J. Obaid, Zaman Ashraf, Yasir Nazir, Rabab S. Jassas, Nafeesa Naeem, Meshari A. Alsharif, Syed Wadud Ali Shah, Ziad Moussa, Ehsan Ullah Mughal, Abdel Rahman Farghaly, Saleh A. Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Benzothiazepines are pharmacologically active compounds, frequently utilized as a precursor for acquiring versatile molecules with several bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV), analgesic, antitumor, antimicrobial, and antitubercular. In this study, the 2,4-diphenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepine scaffold was selected for their in vitro, docking, and druglikeness studies to evaluate their inhibitory potential against mushroom tyrosinase. All synthesized analogues, 1-14, exhibited moderate to good IC50 values ranging from 1.21 to 70.65 μM. The synthesized benzothiazepine derivatives were potent tyrosinase inhibitors, which outperformed the reference kojic acid (IC50 = 16.69 μM). The kinetic analysis revealed that compound 2 (2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-(p-tolyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]thiazepine) was a mixed-type tyrosinase inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.01 μM. Molecular modeling studies against tyrosinase protein (PDB ID: 2Y9X) were conducted to recognize the binding modes of these analogues. The utilization of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations enabled the assessment of the protein-ligand complex’s dynamic behavior, stability, and binding affinity for the compounds. These simulations ultimately led to the identification of compound 2 as a potential inhibitor of tyrosinase. Additionally, a druglikeness study was conducted, which supported the promising potential of the new analogues as novel antityrosinase agents. The in silico studies were consistent with the in vitro results, showing that these ligands had good binding scores against tyrosinase and interacted with the core residues of the target protein. Gaussian 09 was used for the geometry optimization of all complexes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17195-17208
Number of pages14
JournalACS Omega
Volume8
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 16 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering

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