The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioural program based on habit reversal for the management of chronic tic disorder (CTD) and habit disorder (HD). Forty-seven CTD and 43 HD received a 4-month treatment program. Thirty-eight (22 CTD, 16 HD) were placed on a waitlist control group, which subsequently received treatment. The treatment approach combined awareness training, relaxation (including modification of a tension-producing style of action), and habit-reversal training, with more general cognitive restructuring of anticipations linked to ticcing. Sixty-five percent of completers reported between 75 and 100% control over the tic. At 2-year follow-up, 52% rated 75-100% control. There were also significant changes post-treatment in measures of self-esteem, anxiety, depression and style of planning action. Successful tic/habit modification was associated in CTD and HD groups with successful change in style of planning action. There were no consistent differences in any outcome measures between CTD and HD groups.
- Cognitive behavioural treatment
- Habit disorders
- Habit reversal
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health