Evaluation of Groundwater Resources in the Qeft Area of Egypt: A Geophysical and Geochemical Perspective

Alhussein Adham Basheer, Elsayed I. Selim, Alaa Ahmed, Adel Kotb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study focuses on the critical issue of access to clean water in water-stressed regions like the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). To address the challenges of water stress, the study proposes an integrated approach involving geographical, statistical, and geophysical analysis. The objectives are to assess the distribution of pollutants such as heavy metals, salts, and water turbidity near industrial facilities; identify their sources and pathways; evaluate water quality and its impact on human health; and improve environmental classification using geophysical and geochemical methods. The study area, located southeast of Qena city, is characterized by an arid climate with minimal rainfall and is primarily covered by Upper Cretaceous and Lower Eocene rocks. The third layer in the study area is considered a shallow aquifer of Quaternary alluvial deposits; it deepens from 20 m to 93 m, displaying resistivity from 18 Ω∙m to 120 Ω∙m, with thickness increasing downstream to approximately 90 m. Understanding groundwater flow from northeast to southeast is crucial for understanding pollutant distribution in the region. The research reveals variations in groundwater quality, including high total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from 240 to 531 mg/L and electrical conductivity (EC) values ranging from 376–802 μS/cm, as well as the presence of heavy metals. Some water samples exceeded the recommended limits for certain parameters set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Spatial distribution analysis showed higher mineralization toward the northeast of the study area. Overall, the integrated approach proposed in this study can contribute to effective water-management strategies to ensure sustainable water resources and protect public health in water-stressed regions like Egypt.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4815
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • geophysical exploration
  • groundwater
  • heavy metals
  • multivariate statistics
  • risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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