Evaluation of physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of woven kenaf/bio-epoxy composites

Alhassan Yakubu Abare, Mohammad Jawaid, Norul Hisham Hamid, Balkis Fatomer A. Bakar, Ahmad Safwan Ismail, Siti Noorbaini Sarmin, Hassan Fouad, Mohamad Midani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The demand for eco-friendly materials in many sectors is due to the age-long usage of synthetic materials, which has so many negative impacts on the environment, high energy consumption, and health concerns. The physical, mechanical, morphological, and thermal properties of woven kenaf fibre reinforced bio-epoxy composites are investigated in this study. The bio-composites were produced utilizing a manual lay-up process with varying fibre loading percentages of 30%, 35%, and 40%. Pure Bio-epoxy composites were also prepared as a reference. Physical, mechanical, morphological, and thermal characteristics were assessed. The density and water absorption of the bio-composites increase as the fibre loading increased. The highest density (1.2559 g/cm3) was shown by 40% fibre loading which also exhibited the highest water absorption of 9.8%. Furthermore, the void content revealed that the pure bio-epoxy has the highest value of 3.16% as compared to kenaf/bio-epoxy composites. The highest tensile strength and Young’s modulus was recorded by 40% fibre loading with 92.47 MPa and 9.18 GPa respectively. Impact properties also show enhancement with the increase in fibre loading, it showed the highest impact strength of 7280.8 J/m2 at 40% fibre loading. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the tensile fracture indicates that 40% fibre loading shows better fibre and bio-epoxy inter facial bonding because of its higher strength. The Initial decomposition temperature (IDT) of the bio-composites happens at about 230°C–280°C, and the Final decomposition temperature (FDT) is 540°C–560°C which is lower when compared to the pure bio-epoxy composites of 279°C and 560°C. Kenaf/bio-epoxy composites with 40% fibre loading show the best physical and mechanical and thermal properties. Based on our findings, we believe that our green bio-composites has the potential to be employed in various industries such as automobiles, construction and packaging.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Industrial Textiles
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • bio composites
  • Bio-epoxy
  • fibre loading
  • woven kenaf

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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