Evaluation of the characteristics of iron metabolism markers in patients with CHF-related anemia in Jordan

Derar H. Abdel-Qader, Salah AbuRuz, Hana M. Sawan, Nadia Al Mazrouei, Osama Mohamed Ibrahim, Salim Hamadi, Jennifer Silverthorne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Congestive heart failure (CHF) frequently coexists with anemia, which is associated with negative results. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to evaluate the characteristics of iron metabolism markers in patients with CHF and anemia in Jordan. The current investigation included 150 CHF patients divided into 3 subgroups: 50 patients with absolute iron deficiency (AID) where (serum ferritin (SF) <100 μg/L), 50 patients with functional iron deficiency (FID) where (SF=100-300 μg/L and iron transferrin saturation coefficient (ITSC) <20%), and 50 other patients having anemia without ID. Among the total studied patients, hemoglobin values corresponded to a mild degree of anemia. Serum iron (SI), serum ferritin (SF), and soluble transferrin receptors (STR) matched reference levels, transferrin (TR) was below normal, and the median iron transferrin saturation coefficient (ITSC) <20% is an indication of ID. SI, SF, and TR conformed to reference values. TR, STR, ITSC, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), and C-reactive protein (CRP) all showed statistically significant variations among the studied subgroups, indicating important variations in iron metabolism of these subgroups. In the AID subgroup, CRP and hepcidin values were minimal, indicating a minor role in inflammation. Anemia in individuals with CHF was normocytic and normochromic, with low erythropoietin release and significant amounts of CRP and hepcidin. At later phases, iron supplements should be recommended for these two subgroups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-33
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Advanced Pharmacy Education and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Anemia
  • Erythropoietin
  • Ferritin
  • Heart failure
  • Hepcidin
  • Iron deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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