The Bendigo-Castlemaine goldfields lie within the well-known chevron-folded Ordovician turbidites of Victoria, Australia. Detailed re-examination of surface and subsurface maps indicates that there are other common fold shapes (boxfolds and flat-topped folds with subsidiary hinges) which are enclosed within chevron folded layers and are traceable into them. Plasticine multilayer experiments were performed to examine the fold profile shape evolution of chevrons and associated folds. In the experiments chevrons evolved from sinusoidal folds or boxfolds. Sinusoidal folds became chevrons mainly via hinge sharpening, while boxfolds evolved into chevrons via hinge migration and fusion of the hinges. For boxfolds, hinge migration rates controlled rates of limb steepening versus median segment (i.e., the flat top of the boxfold) length reduction during bulk shortening. Periodic slowing or "jamming" of hinge migration led to stepwise) limb-dip increases, and buckling of median segments producing analogous fold styles to those seen in the Bendigo-Castlemaine folds. Limb steepening in a boxfolded multilayer must lead to dilations spanning the median segment and/or curving of boxfold axial planes. The latter dilations experience the same shape changes as their enclosing folded layers. In nature such dilation may be represented by bedding-parallel veins which are subsequently incorporated onto chevron limbs as a result of hinge migration. Thus bedding-parallel veins which are continuous over chevron hinges and are folded in the hinge zones need not be pre-folding or early-folding.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth-Surface Processes