Water pipe smoking is a tobacco smoking method commonly used in Eastern countries and is gaining popularity in Europe and North America, in particular among adolescents and young adults. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that exposure to water pipe smoke (WPS) induces lung inflammation and impairment of pulmonary function. However, the mechanisms of such effects are not understood, as are data on the possible palliative effect of exercise training. The present study evaluated the effects of regular aerobic exercise training (treadmill: 5 days/week, 40 min/day) on subchronic exposure to WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 months). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to air or WPS with or without exercise training. Airway resistance measured using forced oscillation technique was significantly and dose-dependently increased in the WPSexposed group when compared with the air-exposed one. Exercise training significantly prevented the effect of WPS on airway resistance. Histologically, the lungs of WPS-exposed mice had focal moderate interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration consisting of neutrophil polymorphs, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. There was a mild increase in intra-alveolar macrophages and a focal damage to alveolar septae in some foci. Exercise training significantly alleviated these effects and also decreased the WPSinduced increase of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 concentrations and attenuated the increase of 8-isoprostane in lung homogenates. Likewise, the lung DNA damage induced by WPS was significantly inhibited by exercise training. Moreover, exercise training inhibited nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) expression induced by WPS and increased that of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Our findings suggest that exercise training significantly mitigated WPS-induced increase in airway resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage via mechanisms that include inhibiting NF-κB and activating Nrf2 signalling pathways.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology