Experimental and established oximes as pretreatment before acute exposure to azinphos-methyl

Dietrich E. Lorke, Syed M. Nurulain, Mohamed Y. Hasan, Kamil Kuča, Georg A. Petroianu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) represents an ongoing threat to civilians and rescue personal. We have previously shown that oximes, when administered prophylactically before exposure to the OPC paraoxon, are able to protect from its toxic effects. In the present study, we have assessed to what degree experimental (K-27; K-48; K-53; K-74; K75) or established oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime), when given as pretreatment at an equitoxic dosage of 25% of LD01, are able to reduce mortality induced by the OPC azinphos-methyl. Their efficacy was compared with that of pyridostigmine, the only FDA-approved substance for such prophylaxis. Efficacy was quantified in rats by Cox analysis, calculating the relative risk of death (RR), with RR=1 for the reference group given only azinphos-methyl, but no prophylaxis. All tested compounds significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced azinphos-methyl-induced mortality. In addition, the efficacy of all tested experimental and established oximes except K-53 was significantly superior to the FDA-approved compound pyridostigmine. Best protection was observed for the oximes K-48 (RR = 0.20), K-27 (RR = 0.23), and obidoxime (RR = 0.21), which were significantly more efficacious than pralidoxime and pyridostigmine. The second-best group of prophylactic compounds consisted of K-74 (RR = 0.26), K-75 (RR = 0.35) and pralidoxime (RR = 0.37), which were significantly more efficacious than pyridostigmine. Pretreatment with K-53 (RR = 0.37) and pyridostigmine (RR = 0.52) was the least efficacious. Our present data, together with previous results on other OPCs, indicate that the experimental oximes K-27 and K-48 are very promising pretreatment compounds. When penetration into the brain is undesirable, obidoxime is the most efficacious prophylactic agent already approved for clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3072
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2 2021


  • Acetylcholine
  • Azinphos-methyl
  • Carbamates
  • Cholinesterase
  • Cox analysis
  • Obidoxime
  • Organophosphate
  • Pesticide
  • Pralidoxime
  • Prophylaxis
  • Rat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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