Exploring attachment security in a sample of Lebanese adolescents: The validation of the Arabic IPPA-R

Pia Tohme, Nour Yaktine, Elma Nassar, Karim Badr, Ian Grey, Rudy Abi-Habib

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Despite growing evidence supporting the importance of the quality of attachment during adolescence, no studies have been conducted to date in the Arab world due to an absence of valid and reliable tools to measure this construct in Arabic. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised (IPPA-R) was devised as a self-report questionnaire in English to assess the quality of adolescent attachment to mother, father, and peers, each scale consisting of 25 items. The current study sets out to determine the psychometric properties of the Arabic IPPA-R and to explore attachment styles in Lebanon in a sample of 765 Lebanese adolescents. Results suggested a modified three-factor structure to reach satisfactory reliability of the Arabic IPPA-R, resulting in a modified questionnaire consisting of 19 items for each of mother (α = .82) and father (α = .85), and 21 items for peers (α = .89). Strict measurement invariance across gender was achieved for the IPPA-R parental forms, while only scalar invariance was achieved for the IPPA-R peers form. Overall, there were significant differences in attachment scores to mother and father, with adolescents scoring higher on attachment to mother, with both scores being significantly lower than attachment to peers. Gender differences were found on the peer scale with girls scoring significantly higher than boys. Results are interpreted from a cultural lens, emphasizing the importance of accounting for cultural, religious, and socio-economic factors in understanding adolescent attachment. This study is the first conducted in the Arab region and provides a road map to understanding gender-roles, parental expectations and adolescent perceived parenting, and their impact on adolescent attachment scores.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0298084
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number3 March
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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