Exploring Non-Toxic Lower Dimensional Perovskites for Next-Generation X-Ray Detectors

Nasir Ali, Khurram Shehzad, Sanam Attique, Ayaz Ali, Fazli Akram, Adnan Younis, Shahid Ali, Yan Sun, Guolin Yu, Huizhen Wu, Ning Dai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Owing to their extraordinary photophysical properties, organometal halide perovskites are emerging as a new material class for X-ray detection. However, the existence of toxic lead makes their commercialization questionable and should readily be replaced. Accordingly, several lead alternatives have been introduced into the framework of conventional perovskites, resulting in various new perovskite dimensionalities. Among these, Pb-free lower dimensional perovskites (LPVKs) not only show promising X-ray detecting properties due to their higher ionic migration energy, wider and tunable energy bandgap, smaller dark currents, and structural versatility but also exhibit extended environmental stability. Herein, first, the structural organization of the PVKs (including LPVKs) is summarized. In the context of X-ray detectors (XDs), the outstanding properties of the LPVKs and active layer synthesis routes are elaborated afterward. Subsequently, their applications in direct XDs are extensively discussed and the device performance, in terms of the synthesis method, device architecture, active layer size, figure of merits, and device stability are tabulated. Finally, the review is concluded with an in-depth outlook, thoroughly exploring the present challenges to LPVKs XDs, proposing innovative solutions, and future directions. This review provides valuable insights into optimizing non-toxic Pb-free perovskite XDs, paving the way for future advancements in the field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2310946
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Jun 5 2024


  • lower dimensional perovskites
  • Pb-free perovskites
  • perovskites
  • X-ray detectors, X-ray imagers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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