Fabricating V2AlC/g-C3N4 nanocomposite with MAX as electron moderator for promoting photocatalytic CO2-CH4 reforming to CO/H2

Mohamed Madi, Muhammad Tahir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Exfoliated vanadium aluminum carbide (V2AlC) MAX nanosheets coupled with porous graphitic carbon nitride to construct 2D/2D V2AlC MAX/g-C3N4 heterojunction for photocatalytic CO2 reduction through dry reforming of methane has been investigated. Good interfacial interaction was achieved which enabled proficient charge carrier separation with promoted light absorption. The optimized 10 wt%V2AlC MAX/g-C3N4 was more proficient with CO and H2 evolution rates of 118.74 and 89.52 μmole g−1 h-1 at selectivity 57.01 and 42.98%, respectively. This efficiency for CO and H2 evolution rate was 2.21- and 1.99-folds superior to using pure g-C3N4. This improvement is due to good interfacial contact and efficient charge carrier separation by MAX, which increases photo-induced charge carrier lifetime. The performance was further investigated with different reforming systems to manipulate the effective utilization of holes to extend charges recombination rate. Using CO2 reduction with hydrogen, CO2 methanation and the reverse water-gas shift reaction were activated, whereas CO2 with water promoted more methane formation. By investigating CH4/CO2 feed ratios, the highest yield rates attained with the ratio of 1:0, confirming V2AlC based-composite effectively activates both gases as evidenced by their apparent quantum yields. This study provides a promising route for the fabrication of noble-metal-free nanocomposite and will be useful for future energy and environmental applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7666-7685
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • dry reforming of methane
  • exfoliated VAlC MAX
  • heterojunction formation
  • photocatalytic CO reduction
  • porous g-CN
  • sacrificial reagents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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