Facile Synthesis of MAX Modified Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanocomposite for Stimulating Hydrogen Production Through Photocatalytic Water Splitting

Muhammad Tahir, Areen Sherryna, Zaki Yamani Zakaria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Photocatalytic hydrogen production has been considered a promising strategy for developing green, sustainable, and clean energy resources to substitute non-renewable fossil fuels. A widely studied graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has garnered research attention due to their commercial availability and excellent photochemical efficiency to drive hydrogen generation through water splitting process. Undesirable recombination of photocarriers, higher electrostatic potential barriers, and low solar absorbance in a single g- C3N4 photocatalyst impede their efficiency in the energy conversion field. Several alternatives have been proposed over decades to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of g-C3N4. Among them, noble metal integration has been denoted as the most promising technique to maximize solar efficiency. Less availability and noneconomical, however, limit their functionality surpasses their unique SPR characteristics. In this study, a novel composite of V2AlC MAX/g-C3N4 that exhibits the same functionality as those of noble metals was fabricated via a sol-gel method, and their efficiency enhancement was investigated using a liquid slurry photoreactor system. The optimal 10% loading of V2AlC exhibits maximum hydrogen generation up to 196.25 μmol g-1 h-1, which is 2.8-fold higher than pure g-C3N4. The photoactivity enhancement observed was due to the intimate contact formed between V2AlC with g-C3N4, accelerating the migration of the photogenerated charges. The electrons confinement due to the induced Schottky junction hamper the recombination of and maximizes the separation of the photocarriers. The prepared sample was characterized by XRD, PL analysis, and SEM. The successful integration of V2AlC with g-C3N4 was affirmed by XRD analysis as the characteristics peaks of both materials are present in the composite. The stacked irregular structure of V2AlC/g-C3N4 highly indicates that a tight interface contact was formed between both semiconductors. This study provides new insight into newly developed V2AlC MAX-based g-C3N4 for clean energy systems and unravels their potential in solar energy applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-576
Number of pages6
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering


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