Factors associated with anxiety and depression among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Anan S. Jarab, Walid A. AlQerem, Shrouq R. Abu Heshmeh, Yazid N.Al Hamarneh, Salah Aburuz, Judith Eberhardt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study investigated factors associated with anxiety and depression in COPD outpatients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 702 COPD outpatients from two major Jordanian hospitals using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was conducted. Results: Significant associations were found with gender (Anxiety OR: 5.29, 95%CI: 2.38–11.74; Depression OR: 0.20, 95%CI: 0.08–0.51), disease severity (Anxiety OR: 2.97, 95%CI: 1.80–4.91; Depression OR: 15.95, 95%CI: 5.32–52.63), LABA use (Anxiety OR: 16.12, 95%CI: 8.26–32.26; Depression OR: 16.95, 95%CI: 8.33–34.48), medication count (Anxiety OR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.59–0.90; Depression OR: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.40–0.64), mMRC score (Anxiety OR: 2.41, 95%CI: 1.81–3.22; Depression OR: 2.31, 95%CI: 1.76–3.03), and inhalation technique (Anxiety OR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93–0.97; Depression OR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.90–0.95). Other factors associated with anxiety included high income, urban living, diabetes, hypertension, LAMA use, and fewer COPD medications. Depression was also linked with heart disease, increased age, and longer disease duration. Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety and depression among COPD patients necessitates targeted interventions. Future research that recruits a more diverse sample in multiple sites and establishes the cause-effect relationship between the study predictors and outcome could provide a more robust conclusion on factors associated with anxiety and depression among COPD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-65
Number of pages7
JournalExpert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Anxiety
  • COPD
  • depression
  • intervention
  • medication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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